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- Variation in the Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Genotypes for Health-Promoting Bioactive Compounds and Agro-Morphological Traitsel junio 1, 2023 a las 12:00 am
Abstract Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important commercial vegetable crop. Thirty-one genotypes were collected from 8 states of India for evaluation of genetic diversity. Nineteen morphological (ten qualitative and nine quantitative) and seven biochemical traits facilitated an assessment of the genetic differences and structure of these eggplant genotypes. The recorded traits of leaf hair, leaf prickles, calyx prickles, fruit pedicel prickles, leaf blade colour, fruit colour, days to 50% flowering, days to first harvest, fruit weight, fruit girth, number of fruits/plant, yield/plant, total phenolics content, antioxidant capacity, chlorophyll content and sugar content were found significantly variable. Many of these characters are of noteworthy socio-economic and nutritional importance and could be used as breeding objectives to improve yield and quality. Result show that in future breeding program of BRBL-1 and IC-89888, yield traits (number of fruits/plant and yield/plant) are important for primary selection. The 2D PCA plot based on biochemical data showed that BRBL-8 was highlighted for its phenolics content, antioxidant properties, chlorophyll content and high sugar content. IIHR-562, IC-261802 and Pant Rituraj have potential for improvement of traits like, number of fruits/plant, yield/plant, total anthocyanin content, phenolics content and antioxidant capacity.
- Seed Biopriming with Trichoderma Harzianum for Growth Promotion and Drought Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativus)el junio 1, 2023 a las 12:00 am
Abstract Water scarcity is one of the primary consequences of climate change, which negatively affects crop growth and productivity. Current research focuses on the effect of an antagonistic fungus, Trichoderma harzianum, on drought stress management in rice. Of 30 Trichoderma isolates examined, only seven isolates, namely IRRI 1, TH 28, TH 21, TH 30, TH 3, TH 26, and TH 7 were selected as drought tolerant due to their ability to colonize well on de-oiled cake of Neem at low moisture content of 10 to 20 percent. These isolates were used as seed biopriming to test their ability to improve drought tolerance in tillering stage of rice. T. harzianum strains IRRI-1, TH-28, TH-30, and TH-21 showed the greatest reduction in leaf rolling after six, nine, and twelve days of drought exposure. These most potent strains, IRRI-1, TH-28, TH-30, and TH-21, were also able to improve drought tolerance in rice plants by minimizing proline content and increasing the leaf total chlorophyll content, leaf area index, relative water content, and Membrane Stability Index. Thus, it was found that Trichoderma harzianum strains IRRI-1, TH-28, TH-30 and TH-21 are very effective in providing drought tolerance in rice plants by interfering with the morphological, physiological and biochemical activities of rice plants. Colonization of rice seeds by drought-tolerant Trichoderma harzianum strains increased growth and delayed drought response in rice, which could be very critical and helpful in rice crop production, especially under drought conditions.
- Assessing Rural Household Food Security using Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in Western Iranel junio 1, 2023 a las 12:00 am
Abstract This study aimed to assess rural household food security status in the villages of Kermanshah County using sustainable livelihoods framework by an exploratory sequential mixed-methods approach. In this research, qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed in two separate phases. In qualitative research, change agents and the Delphi technique are employed to identify and classify these factors and prioritize the effects of them on the food security status of rural households. In the second phase, the theoretical basis for the structural model in the quantitative investigation, based on sustainable livelihoods framework, and the results of the qualitative section were added to the model. Bayesian structural equation modeling is used in model presentation. The results indicate that among the food security dimensions, stability (0.738) and among the sustainable livelihood framework factors, social capital (0.316) have the greatest impact on food security status. Moreover, the dimensions of natural capital (0.172), human capital (0.133), financial capital (0.081), livelihood strategies (0.075), vulnerability patterns (-0.046), transformative structures and processes (0.019) and physical capital (0.012) are the most effective factors on the food security status of households, respectively. In addition, "participation in cooperative activities with other villagers", "social integration with other rural members", "the crime rate in the village," and "more preference for living in rural area" had the greatest effect on the formation of social capital. Hence, social empowerment, use of diverse cropping pattern and access to education in the region are necessary to improve food security development programs. Enhancing participation in cooperative activities with other rural households and encouraging social integration with members from other villages are the most important recommendations in this research.
- Effect of Different Forms of Silicon Application on Wheat Aphid Resistanceel junio 1, 2023 a las 12:00 am
Abstract Based on the view of plant basic metabolism, the mechanism of different forms of silicon on reducing wheat aphid density was discussed to provide scientific basis for ecological regulation of wheat aphids in the field. Five treatments were applied: Control, Nano-silicon, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), Na2SiO3 and K2SiO3. Solution culture experiment was conducted to set up five spraying silicon treatments (Control, Nano-silicon, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), Na2SiO3 and K2SiO3) to carry out aphid infestation when wheat has five expanded leaves. The density of aphids was surveyed and the wheat samples were collected, respectively, at the 4th and 8th day after the aphid infestation, and the effects of different forms of silicon on the contents of free amino acids, soluble proteins, soluble sugars and silicon in wheat leaves after aphid infestation were analyzed. The density of aphids on wheat plants treated with different forms of silicon was significantly lower than that of Control 4 days and 8 days after aphid infestation, and TEOS treatment had the lowest density of wheat aphids. On the 4th and 8th day of aphid infestation, compared with Control treatment, the contents of free amino acid and soluble protein in wheat plants sprayed with silicon treatment were significantly reduced, the contents of soluble sugar and leaf silicon were significantly increased, and TEOS treatment had the most obvious effect. After the 4th and 8th day of aphid infestation, the contents of free amino acid and soluble protein were, respectively, reduced by 45.16 and 78.16%, the contents of soluble protein were, respectively, reduced by 48.82 and 95.26%, the contents of soluble sugar were, respectively, increased by 18.50 and 36.69%, and the contents of leaf silicon were, respectively, increased by 69.05 and 77.05%. The results of correlation analysis showed that the density of wheat aphids was significantly positively correlated with the contents of free amino acids and soluble protein, and significantly negatively correlated with the contents of soluble sugar and silicon in leaves 4 and 8 days after aphid infestation. Spraying different forms of silicon (silicon content 3 mmol L−1) could reduce wheat aphid density, of which TEOS treatment had the best effect. Silicon could improve wheat aphid resistance by increasing the content of silicon and soluble sugar, and by reducing the content of free amino acids and soluble proteins in wheat leaves.
- Effect of Straw Returning and Nitrogen Application Rate on Soil Enzymatic Activitiesel junio 1, 2023 a las 12:00 am
Abstract In order to study the effects of full corn straw returning and water and nitrogen regulation on straw decomposition, soil enzyme activity and microorganisms. The nylon mesh bag method was used. Seven treatments were set up according to soil moisture (SM) and nitrogen application (Napp). The experiment excluded interference factors such as crops and atmospheric environment. The results showed that water and nitrogen regulation significantly promoted the decomposition of straw, and straw decomposition rate was higher with Napp than without Napp. Soil sucrase activity, urease activity and cellulase activity first increased and then decreased. Soil sucrase activity was highest at 200 kg hm−2 Napp and 60–70% SM. Under the same Napp, soil urease activity was highest at 70–90% SM soil cellulase activity at 200 kg hm−2 Napp was higher than at 140 kg hm−2 under 60–70% SM. The number of soil bacteria first increased and then decreased and it was highest at 70–90% SM under the same Napp. The number of soil fungi showed a gradually increasing trend, and it was highest at 70–90% SM under 200 kg hm−2 Napp. The straw decomposition rate has significant positive correlation with the number of soil bacteria and fungi, and the three interacted with each other. There was an intrinsic link between sucrase and urease. The study was intended to provide theoretical reference and basis for water and nitrogen management under straw returning.